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Philosophy

Learning Indonesian Philosophy Way, Inspired by the Java Kingdom

In Europe, the understanding of Asian philosophy is lacking. Other parts of the world, like Asia, America, Africa and Australia, do not feel spawn certain philosophical thinking. If there is also a lecture or philosophical research on progress outside Europe, orientalism nuance is still very strong. In this sense, orientalism is a view that strives to understand different cultures by wearing a glass of European thought. This pattern will surely fall into misunderstanding.

Then, what about the philosophy of Indonesia? Does Indonesia perhaps have its own philosophical doctrine? To be able to answer this question, I and you need to understand the meaning of Indonesia and the meaning of the philosophy itself.

Indonesian Artefact of Java History

As a nation and state structure, Indonesia emerged from the colonization of European countries, especially the Netherlands. Before colonialism, or colonialism, there was no such thing as Indonesia. There is a variety of independent kingdom with their own customs and uniqueness. After 1945, thanks to the colonization of the life of colonial life for hundreds of years, Indonesia was born as an awareness, understanding, as a nation and state structure (subsequently added a number of other areas).

In my economics, Indonesia does not have any particular philosophical doctrine. What Indonesia has, as a plurality of nations, is the various worldviews (Weltanschauungen) or minds that already exist and grow for thousands of years. This worldview becomes an element of culture, then produces various cultural products, like values, rituals, clothes, food, patterns of behavior and so on. This is more little known as local wisdoms (local wisdoms) Indonesia.

The worldview is a collection of understandings about all things related to individual life and life together embedded in a certain group of habits, and become an element of their identity. The world view can be understood from five points.

For a long time, I visited many philosophical classes in Europe. Of course, Western philosophy is very thickly developed there. Many experienced studies of a particular area in Western philosophy, for example ancient Greek philosophy or German philosophy, then trained in many universities. With this technique, Western philosophy, or rather European philosophy, can nurture and develop its identity.

However, in Europe, the understanding of Asian philosophy is lacking. Other parts of the world, like Asia, America, Africa and Australia, do not feel spawn certain philosophical thinking. If there is also a lecture or philosophical research on progress outside Europe, orientalism nuance is still very strong. In this sense, orientalism is a view that strives to understand different cultures by wearing a glass of European thought. This pattern will surely fall into misunderstanding.

Then, what about the philosophy of Indonesia? Does Indonesia perhaps have its own philosophical doctrine? To be able to answer this question, I and you need to understand the meaning of Indonesia and the meaning of the philosophy itself.

Prambanan Temple

As a nation and state structure, Indonesia emerged from the colonization of European countries, especially the Netherlands. Before colonialism, or colonialism, there was no such thing as Indonesia. There is a variety of independent kingdom with their own customs and uniqueness. After 1945, thanks to the colonization of the life of colonial life for hundreds of years, Indonesia was born as an awareness, understanding, as a nation and state structure (subsequently added a number of other areas).

In my economics, Indonesia does not have any particular philosophical doctrine. What Indonesia has, as a plurality of nations, is the various worldviews (Weltanschauungen) or minds that already exist and grow for thousands of years. This worldview becomes an element of culture, then produces various cultural products, like values, rituals, clothes, food, patterns of behavior and so on. This is more little known as local wisdoms (local wisdoms) Indonesia.

The worldview is a collection of understandings about all things related to individual life and life together embedded in a certain group of habits, and become an element of their identity. The world view can be understood from five points.

The first point is cosmology. Cosmology is the view of a group of customs about nature that they occupy, categorized in it the view of the making of the universe, the process is formed up to its destruction. Each group of habits understands their nature with its unique method, for example an understanding of a mountain, a river, a desert or a forest. This kind of view is spread so little and amongst many custom groups in Indonesia.

The second point is theology. Theology is a view of God embraced by a particular group of habits. Theology is often concerned with existing religious institutions, categorized in them moral values, rituals, hierarchy and physical location. Every collection of cultures, even in Indonesia, has a unique understanding of God that fits into the atmosphere of their lives.

The third point is axiology. Axiology is a view of values ​​embedded within certain groups of habits. Included in it is a view as well as a description of everything that is perceived as valuable, like a well-perceived action, speech that is felt good, behaviors that are felt good, doctrines are felt good, and so forth. The axiom of a particular group of habits binds the people in it into a particular value community.

The fourth point is epistemology, which is the view of the origin of knowledge contained within a particular group of habits. It contains information about how a knowledge, such as the creation of the universe, can be created. Epistemology is thick with a statement based on reason, certainly as the group of habits know the mind. This is where we can understand that “reasoning” is also not an absolute and universal thing, but embedded in a unique and living worldview.

Will continue in the next post. If you like this kind of article please follow my blog.

 

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stay motivated thanks to positive psychology!

What is positive psychology?

Positive psychology, not to be confused with positive thinking, consists in “taking an  interest in well-being and all its components by bringing together specific determinants to generate positive emotions. The goal is to increase your well being and potentiate the effects of what happens to us well,  “says Charles Galand. For this, it is necessary to ”  take an interest in what makes us happy, to talk about it and to remember it  “. To get there, try, in a day, to highlight the positive events so that the negative things do not take over! Because in this period of revisions , it is imperative to keep fit and feel good both mentally and physically to boost your chances of success . Know that the positive emotions are related to our immune system and our health: This is why “the  more positive we are, the more likely we are to be resistant, so to feel good before and during the exam!  “Confirms Charles Galand.

Make your stress a success factor

Positive psychology does not directly reduce stress , but to control emotions. According to Charles Galand, ”  it helps to overcome an uncomfortable situation much more easily, so to surpass oneself on a daily basis  “. For example, being able to do an annals exercise or have a good White Bac rating is a positive experience that needs to be valued: it reinforces your sense of control, which will allow you to better manage your stress afterwards!
” Emotion management is important for vital balance and psychological health. In the long run, too much stress has a bad impact on the body. That’s when negative emotions will grow  . ” The goal is therefore that your stress strengthens your adaptation function in the face of a particular event like the Bac  !

Simple methods to apply

There are many simple and accessible methods you can use to keep your spirits up. Charles Galand offers you some of them.

Before going to bed, write down in a journal at least three favorable things that happened to you during the day and read them over again. So you have to make an effort to remember positive events: if you do not, they are less powerful and negative emotions easily take over! For example, you may note that you have made good progress in your revisions, or when you want to watch your favorite soccer team match in Bandar Bola Piala Dunia 2018, or have included a particular point in a class. “The brain working at night, it will simply allow you to anchor in your memory positive memories and not focus on your fear of failure . ” So you have the keys in your hands!

The relationship you have with those around you is also important: “Being open to others will greatly enhance a positive self-image, self-esteem and self-esteem,” says Charles Galand. Group work is therefore beneficial! Help each other during revisions and share your cards. You will motivate your comrades who will motivate you too. This will allow you to boost your abilities unconsciously and revise effectively for the Baccalaureate!

Blog, Philosophy, Tips

how to love philosophy?

Are you one of the students who hate philosophy? You do not understand anything in class? First of all, you must forget all the prejudices and misconceptions you can have about philosophy in order to better apprehend and love it. This is what explains Jean-Jacques Sarfati, professor of philosophy at the University Paris-Dauphine.

Why is philosophy scary?

”  Philosophy has always been scary because it refers to a search for truth and as the saying goes (wrongly in my opinion),” there is only the truth that hurts “and we are afraid of being hurt by philosophy because of its close connection with the truth. Yet philosophy is also and above all the quest and love of the wise , and in a world that works well, no one should fear wisdom!
On the other hand, philosophy has become a very selective subject and to fail there is fear for the famous file that would open the doors of selective channels. Finally, the philo being associated with the intelligence: many say to themselves if I fail in philosophy, I risk to be regarded as a fool!
How many times have I met people who came to see me knowing that I was a professor of philosophy as to apologize for having a “bad” note in philosophy? It must be acknowledged that the way it is sometimes presented gives many young and old people the feeling of not belonging to a very closed “club”: that of those who possess the culture and the cultural keys. These are some explanations, but we should dig deeper …
  ”

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In this case, how to reassure the students?

”  To reassure them, we must change the image of philosophy and I also think that we must reach the general public by works that could be less academic and more focused on what concerns them (without falling into the popularization and all remaining demanding). In classrooms, for example, philosophy teachers need not be “obsessed” by the program, which can be summed up in one sentence: helping young people to make their own judgment and not give in to parental pressure. and students who are obsessed sometimes by the baccalaureate and the method or notions.

The key is not to lose touch with young people, to listen to them and finally not to hesitate to offer them to “play”, to have fun, to make philosophy differently.. In some creative and intelligent classes, which I sometimes have the chance to have, I propose to invent and innovate and it’s crazy what young people have to teach us sometimes! In the most troubled classes, you have to be humble and understand how incredible all this is for these students …  ”

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The constant attention of the philosopher in everyday life

In the first post devoted to the practical simplicity of Stoicism, that is to say, in my opinion, one of the main reasons for the presence and relevance of stoicism today, I have shown the necessary implementation of practice of the philosophy required by Stoicism. The second element I would like to present today, which is another aspect of the practical simplicity of Stoicism, is, alongside the insistent call of the Stoics to a coherence between discourse and practice, the attention permanent philosopher’s daily life.

The constant attention of the philosopher in everyday life

In the various Stoic texts one finds a very precious concern for everyday life, which allows, from the first reading, to put into practice the advice that one finds there. Epictetus constantly reminds us of the necessity of putting the Stoic principles into practice, so we understand the constant concern to show how to live as a philosopher day after day. The concrete situations of everyday life are very often taken as an example to show how to live in a philosophical way in all the circumstances of life: whether at home, in his relations with his wife or children, at the circus, at the theater , or during a banquet, the Interviewsd’Epictète address all types of situations that the philosopher apprentice can encounter day after day. The examples are endless, and correspond to the diversity of circumstances in which a philosopher finds himself and must live, whatever happens, as a philosopher. To prepare to live as a philosopher in all possible and imaginable situations, Stoicism proposes, like other philosophical schools of antiquity, a certain number of practical exercises: spiritual exercises , these voluntary and personal practices aimed at certain transformation of the subject and allowing to live well on a daily basis (definition of Pierre Hadot , taken up by Xavier Pavie ), example par excellence of this practical simplicity of stoicism.

I have already spoken several times on this notebook of spiritual exercises, notably from quotations from Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius on meditation, or from a quote from Marcus Aurelius on self-knowledge.. To show the relevance, today, of certain ancient spiritual exercises, I will take the example of a spiritual exercise that I myself practiced recently: the contemplation of nature, which allows to become aware of the beauty and of the perfection of the world, including what seems to us the most trivial or the least pleasant to look at first sight. This spiritual exercise of contemplation of nature allows the Stoic to become aware of the beauty and perfection of nature, which will later allow him to more easily accept everything that happens to him as part of the nature of things or destiny. See the beauty and perfection of nature in the smallest things in life, including the less attractive, it is training to see the things that surround us and the events that happen to us “with the eyes of a wise man”. This look of the wise man on the world is what the exercise of contemplation of nature must lead to Marcus Aurelius.

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Is a philosophy without speech possible? (Pierre Hadot)

By recognizing, as I propose, philosophical life as one of the two poles of philosophy, there would be room again, in our contemporary world, for philosophers, that is, researchers. of wisdom, which certainly would not renew the philosophical discourse, but seek, not happiness – it seems that this is no longer fashionable – but a life more conscious, more rational, more open to others and on the immensity of the world. ”
Pierre Hadot, Philosophy as a way of life. Interviews with Jeannie Carlier and Arnold I. Davidson , Paris, Albin Michel Editions, 2001, p.179.

This quotation by Pierre Hadot makes it possible to make the link between two distinct but complementary postures adopted by Pierre Hadot as a philosopher and historian of ancient philosophy. In his research on ancient philosophy, Pierre Hadot has, in fact, brought to light the double dimension of ancient philosophy: philosophical life and philosophical discourse go hand in hand, and together describe philosophical activity as it is practiced. in ancient times [1] . As a historian of philosophy, the highlighting of this double dimension of philosophy could remain a dead letter. But as a philosopher, the satisfaction of philosophical discourse is not enough and necessarily involves a philosophical way of life.

The example of Pierre Hadot, presented by Philippe Hoffmann, one of his students, in a series of videos visible on Youtube, thus shows the double dimension of philosophical life. On the one hand, he has always studied in a very scholarly way, the different philosophers of antiquity, whether it be Plotinus, Marius Victorinus, on which he wrote his thesis, Porphyry, or Stoic philosophers, especially those of the imperial period (Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius). This erudition and this meticulous work of translation and analysis of Greek philosophical texts characterize most of the philosophical activity of Pierre Hadot, which represents very well the large number of books and articles, sometimes accessible to the general public, but often very pointed and intended primarily for the specialists of ancient philosophy. And on the other hand, the philosophical discourse of Pierre Hadot, his work as a historian of philosophy in particular,

Pierre Hadot proposes in this quote, for himself and for his contemporaries, a choice of philosophical life. Without going into the profoundly Stoic dimension of this choice of life, I will insist more on the existential dimension of Pierre Hadot’s philosophy. Rather than content himself with renewing the philosophical discourse, remaining in the position of a historian of philosophy, Pierre Hadot endorses the posture of philosopher, in his speech on the one hand, that he leaves the domain of the only Antiquity to bring the contemporary reader to reflect on his own way of seeing the world and its place in the world, and in its way of living on the other hand. To discover more precisely this way of life, I refer you, again, to the interviews that Pierre Hadot granted to Jeannie Carlier and Arnold Davidson,